The role of citizenship behaviour for improving the effectivenss of HSE organizational models: Empirical evidence from ENI company

Author/s Francesco Testa, Fabio Iraldo
Publishing Year 2018 Issue 2017/107 Language Italian
Pages 20 P. 125-144 File size 342 KB
DOI 10.3280/QUA2017-107004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) in relation to the health and safety and environment (HSE) are essential factors for a smooth and efficient organization in firms. Our research focuses on the ENI spa’s experience, a multinational enterprise operating in the oil & gas sector. Starting from its longstanding efforts on HSE issues, ENI has carried out a survey on a large sample of employees, for analyzing the role of OCBs in the own organizational model. The research provides several contributions on empirical and academic literature on OCBs and HSE management. Firstly, it provides an integrated approach for exploring the drivers of OCBs, clarifying the relationship between individual and contextual factors. Secondly, the research stresses the important of a behavioral perspective for understanding the efficacy of HSE practices.

Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, environment, Health and Safety, pro-social behaviours

  1. Aguinis H., Glavas A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate socialresponsibility a review and research agenda. Journal of management, 38: 932-968.
  2. Ajzen I., Fishbein M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behaviours. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27: 41-57.
  3. Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50: 179-211.
  4. Bandura A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  5. Bandura A., Wood R. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 805-814.
  6. Bansal P., Hoffman A. J. (2012). The Oxford handbook of business and the natural environment. Oxford University Press.
  7. Battaglia M., Passetti E., Frey M. (2015). Occupational health and safety management in municipal waste companies: A note on the Italian sector. Safety Science, 72: 55-65.
  8. Biel A., Thøgersen J. (2007). Activation of social norms in social dilemmas: A review of the evidence and reflections on the implications for environmental behavior. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28: 93-112.
  9. Boiral O. (2009). Greening the corporation through organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 87: 221-236.
  10. Boiral O., Paillé P. (2012). Organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: Measurement and validation. Journal of Business Ethics, 109: 431-445.
  11. Boiral O., Talbot D., Paillé P. (2015). Leading by example: A model of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24: 532-550.
  12. Campbell Institute (2016). -- Web. Accessed on 17/1/2018.
  13. Carrico A. R., Riemer M. (2011). Motivating energy conservation in the workplace: An evaluation of the use of group-level feedback and peer education. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31: 1-13.
  14. Cavazza N., Serpe A. (2009). Effects of safety climate on safety norm violations: exploring the mediating role of attitudinal ambivalence toward personal protective equipment. Journal of Safety Research, 40: 277-283.
  15. Cheung S. F., Chan D. K. S., Wong Z. S. Y. (1999). Reexamining the theory of planned behavior in understanding wastepaper recycling. Environment and Behavior, 31: 587-612.
  16. Clarke S. (2006). Contrasting perceptual, attitudinal and dispositional approaches to accident involvement in the workplace. Safety Science, 44: 537-550.
  17. Constantin S. (2012). Industrial Health, Safety and Environmental Management. epubli, Berlin, 3rd edition.
  18. Cordano M., Frieze I. H. (2000). Pollution reduction preferences of U. S. environmental managers: applying Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 627-641.
  19. Curcuruto M., Conchie S.M., Mariani M.G., Violante F.S. (2015). The role of prosocial and proactive safety behaviors in predicting safety performance. Safety Science, 80: 317-323.
  20. Darnall N., Edwards D. (2006). Predicting the cost of environmental management system adoption: the role of capabilities, resources and ownership structure. Strategic Management Journal, 27: 301-320.
  21. DeJoy D. M. (1996). Theoretical models of health behavior and workplace self-protective behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 27: 61-72.
  22. Delmas M. (2001). Stakeholders and competitive advantage: the case of ISO14001. Journal of Production and Operations Management, 10: 343-358.
  23. Diamantopoulos A., Schlegelmilch B. B., Sinkovics R. R., Bohlen G. M. (2003). Can socio-demographics still play a role in profiling green consumers? A review of the evidence and an empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 56: 465-480.
  24. Didla S., Mearns K., Flin R. (2009). Safety citizenship behaviour: a proactive approach to risk management. Journal of Risk Research, 12: 475-483.
  25. Eisenberger R., Fasolo P., & Davis-LaMastro V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of applied psychology, 75(1): 51.
  26. Eisenberger R., Huntington R., Hutchison S., Sowa D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 500-507.
  27. Eni (2001). Health Safety Environment Report -- - Accessed on 12/11/17.
  28. Eni (2013). Press Releases and Notes Print -- h - Accessed on 12/11/17.
  29. Eni (2015). Selected Consolidated Financial Data retrieved at -- - Accessed on 12/12/17.
  30. Fernández-Muñiz B., Montes-Peón J.M., Vázquez-Ordás C.J. (2009). Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance. Safety Science, 47: 980-991.
  31. Feyer A. M., Williamson A. (Eds.) (1998). Occupational injury: Risk, prevention and intervention. CRC Press.
  32. Fishbein M., Ajzen I. (2010). Predicting and Changing Behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
  33. Flannery B. L., May D. R. (2000). Environmental Ethical Decision Making in the U.S. Metal-Finishing Industry. The Academy of Management Journal, 43: 642-662.
  34. Fugas C. S., Silva S. A., Meliá J. L. (2012). Another look at safety climate and safety behavior: Deepening the cognitive and social mediator mechanisms. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 45: 468-477.
  35. Fugas C. S., Silva S. A., Meliá J. L. (2013). Profiling safety behaviors: exploration of the sociocognitive variables that best discriminate between different behavioral patterns. Risk analysis, 33: 838-850.
  36. Gadenne D. L., Kennedy J., McKeiver C. (2009). An Empirical Study of Environmental Awareness and Practices in SMEs. Journal of Business Ethics, 84: 45-63
  37. Gouldner A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American sociological review, 161-178.
  38. Govindarajulu N., Daily B. F. (2004). Motivating employees for environmental improvement. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 104: 364-372.
  39. Ha H. Y., Janda S. (2012). Predicting consumer intentions to purchase energy-efficient products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29: 461-469.
  40. Hatchuel A. (2005). Towards an epistemology of collective action: management research as a responsive and actionable discipline. European Management Review, 2: 36-47.
  41. Health & Safety Executive (2015). Involving your workforce in health and safety Guidance for all workers. -- Available at: (Accessed 20/11/2017).
  42. Hofmann D. A., Morgeson F. P., Gerras S. J. (2003). Climate as a moderator of the relationship between leader-member exchange and content specific citizenship: safety climate as an exemplar. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 170-184.
  43. Høivik D., Moen B. E., Mearns K., Haukelid K. (2009). An explorative study of health, safety and environment culture in a Norwegian petroleum company. Safety Science, 47: 992-1001.
  44. ICCA (2016). International Council of Chemical Associations. Responsible Care Web. -- Available at Accessed on 17/1/2017.
  45. Konovsky M. A., Pugh S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 37: 656-669.
  46. Kristof A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurements and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49: 1-49
  47. Lülfs R., Hahn R. (2014). Corporate Greening beyond Formal Programs, Initiatives, and Systems: A Conceptual Model for Voluntary Pro‐environmental Behavior of Employees. European Management Review, 10: 83-98.
  48. Mearns K. J., Reader T. (2008). Organizational support and safety outcomes: An un-investigated relationship?. Safety Science, 46: 388-397.
  49. Morrison E. W., Phelps C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42: 403-419.
  50. Neal A., Griffin M.A., (2006). A study of the lagged relationships among safety climate, safety motivation, safety behavior, and accidents at the individual and group levels. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 946-953.
  51. Niehoff B. P. (2005). A theoretical model of the influence of organizational citizenship behaviors on organizational effectiveness. New Research in Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, Nova, New York, 385-397.
  52. Norton T. A., Parker S. L., Zacher H., Ashkanasy N. M. (2015). Employee green behavior a theoretical framework, multilevel review, and future research agenda. Organization & Environment, 28: 103-125.
  53. Organ D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. In: Cummings L.L., Staw B.M. (eds). Research in Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 12. JAI: Greenwich, CT: 43-72.
  54. Organ D. W., Podsakoff P. M., MacKenzie S. B. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Sage Publications.
  55. Paillé P., Boiral O., & Chen Y. (2013). Linking environmental management practices and organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: a social exchange perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24: 3552-3575.
  56. Paillé P., Chen Y., Boiral O., Jin J. (2014). The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study. Journal of Business Ethics, 121: 451-466.
  57. Papagiannakis G., Lioukas S. (2012).Values, attitudes and perceptions of managers as predictors of corporate environmental responsiveness. Journal of Environmental Management, 100: 41-51.
  58. Podsakoff P. M., Paine J. B., Bachrach D. C. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: a critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26: 513-563.
  59. Ramus C. A. (2001). Organizational support for employees: Encouraging creative ideas for environmental sustainability. California Management Review, 43: 85-105.
  60. Ramus C. A., & Killmer A. B. (2007). Corporate greening through prosocial extrarole behaviours – A conceptual framework for employee motivation. Business Strategy and the Environment, 16: 554-570.
  61. Ramus C. A., Steger U. (2000). The roles of supervisory support behaviors and environmental policy in employee “ecoinitiatives at leading-edge european companies”. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 605-626.
  62. Rhoades L., Eisenberger R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 698-717.
  63. Salanova M., Lorente L., Chambel M. J., Martínez I. M. (2011). Linking transformational leadership to nurses’ extra‐role performance: the mediating role of self‐efficacy and work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67: 2256-2266.
  64. Schwartz S. H., Howard J. A. (1981). A normative decision-making model of altruism. In Rushton J.P. & Sorrentino R.M. (Eds.). Altruism and helping behavior, 189-211.
  65. Smith C. A., Organ D. W., Near J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68: 653-671.
  66. Somech A., Drach‐Zahavy A. (2004). Exploring organizational citizenship behaviour from an organizational perspective: The relationship between organizational learning and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77: 281-298.
  67. Stajkovic A. D., & Luthans F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124: 240-261.
  68. Stern P. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56: 407-424.
  69. Stern P. C., Dietz T., Abel T., Guagnano G. A., Kalof L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmental concern. Human Ecology Review, 6: 81-97.
  70. Suchman M. C. (1995). Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20: 571-610.
  71. Sun L. Y., Aryee S., & Law K. S. (2007). High-performance human resource practices, citizenship behavior, and organizational performance: A relational perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 558-577.
  72. Temminck E., Mearns K., & Fruhen L. (2015). Motivating employees towards sustainable behavior. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24: 402-412.
  73. Testa F., Boiral O., Iraldo F. (2015). Internalisation of environmental practices and institutional complexity: can stakeholders pressures encourage greenwashing?. Journal of Business Ethics.
  74. Testa F., Cosic A., Iraldo F. (2016). Determining factors of curtailment and purchasing energy related behaviours. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112: 3810-3819.
  75. Van Dyne L., Graham J. W., Dienesch R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 37: 765-802.
  76. Walumbwa F. O., Mayer D. M., Wang P., Wang H., Workman K., & Christensen A. L. (2011). Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115: 204-213.
  77. Witt L. A., Wilson J. W. (1991). Moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between equity and extra-role behaviors. The Journal of Social Psychology, 131: 247-252.
  78. Yin H., Schmeidler P. J. (2009). Why do standardized ISO 14001 environmental management systems lead to heterogeneous environmental outcomes?. Business Strategy and the Environment, 18: 469-486.

Francesco Testa, Fabio Iraldo, Il ruolo dei comportamenti civici nell’efficacia dei modelli organizzativi HSE: evidenze empiriche dall’esperienza di ENI in "QUADERNI DI ECONOMIA DEL LAVORO" 107/2017, pp 125-144, DOI: 10.3280/QUA2017-107004