Gioco problematico: evidenze empiriche e riflessioni per la prevenzione

Journal title PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro
Author/s Raimondo Maria Pavarin
Publishing Year 2018 Issue 2016/3
Language Italian Pages 25 P. 16-40 File size 343 KB
DOI 10.3280/PRI2016-003003
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

One thing is to gamble, another is to gamble a lot, another is addiction. A further aspect to be considered concerns emphasizing the number of problematic gamblers, a figure that might turn out to be counterproductive (an accurate estimate helps prevention policies) while concealing other correlated issues (economic crisis, loneliness of elderly people, the lack of spaces for socialization), with the risk of transforming important social problems into specific health problems, that is the medicalization of gambling. Here we present the results of six studies conducted in the North of Italy in the period between 2000 and 2015: a social issue emerges, concentrated in particular places (e.g. cafés, tobacconist’s) where various types of games are available (e.g. slot machines, instant lotteries, scratch cards), and not always related to other types of addiction. Gambling is most widespread among males and increases with age, but factors that seem to affect intensive gambling are social rank (low level of education and non-professional condition), particular lifestyles (being overweight, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse) and other behavioural disorders (compulsive shopping). It is estimates that there are 1.8 subjects with gambling-related problems who need treatment per one thousand residents, but only one in three turns to the health services, the most serious cases and with other concomitant issues (psychic disorders). This implies the need to promote and make known the services existing on the territory, and the need for a supply of innovative pathways oriented to a variety of targets, together with dedicated prevention initiatives.

Keywords: Gambling, pathological gambling, medicalization, prevention, health service

  1. Abbott M.W., (2006) “Do EGMs and problem gambling go together like a horse and carriage?”, Gambling Research, 18, pp. 7-38
  2. Barbaranelli C., Vecchione M., Fida R., Podio-Guidugli S., (2013) “Estimating the prevalence of adult problem gambling in Italy with SOGS and PGSI”, Journal of Gambling Issues, 28, pp. 1-24
  3. Bastiani L., Gori M., Colasante E., Siciliano V., Capitanucci D., Jarre P., Molinaro S., (2013) “Complex factors and behaviors in the gambling population of Ita-ly”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(1), pp. 1-13
  4. Beaudoin C.M., Cox B.J., (2005) “Characteristics of problem gambling in a Canadian context: a preliminary study using a DSM-IV-based questionnaire”, Canadian Jounal of Psichiatry, 44(5), pp. 483-7
  5. Bernadt M.W., Mumford J., Taylor C., Smith B., Murray R.M., (1982) “Comparison of questionnaire and laboratory tests in the detection of excessive drinking and alcoholism”, Lancet, 1(8267), pp. 325-328
  6. Bondolfi G., Osiek C., Ferrero F., (2008) “Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland”, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 101(6), 473-75
  7. Braun, B., Ludwig, M., Sleczka, P., Bühringer, G., Kraus, L., (2014) “Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn't? Journal of behavioral addictions, 3(3), 189-198
  8. Calado, F., & Griffiths, M. D., (2016) “Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000-2015)”, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, (5)4, 1-22
  9. Camera dei deputati, (2016) Dati sulla raccolta da gioco d’azzardo in Italia nel 2015 --
  10. Capitanucci D., (2005) “Il gioco d’azzardo nel territorio”, Prospettive sociali e sanitarie, 1, pp. 12-18
  11. Capitanucci D., (2012) “Strategie di prevenzione del gioco d’azzardo patologico tra gli adolescenti in Italia. L’utilizzo di strumenti evidence-based per distinguere tra promozione e prevenzione”, The Italian Journal on Addiction, 2, pp. 139-147
  12. Chao, A., Tsay, P.K., Lin, S.H., ShauW.Y., Chao D. Y., (2001) “The applications of capture-recapture models to epidemiological data”, Statistics in Medicine, 20(20), 3123-3157
  13. Collins P., Barr G., (2007) Gambling and problem gambling in South Africa: The national 2006 prevalence study, retrieved on February, 15, 2013, from National Responsible Gambling Programme
  14. Cotte J, Latour K., (2009) “Blackjack in the kitchen: Understanding online versus casino gambling”, Journal of Consumer Research, 35, pp. 742-58
  15. Diener E., Emmons R.A., Larsem R.J., Griffin S., (1985) “The Satisfaction With Life Scale”, Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), pp. 71-5
  16. Dittmar H., (2005) “Compulsive buying a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors”, British journal of psychology, 96, pp. 467-91
  17. Di Bella E., Gandullia L., Leporatti L., (2015) “The Impact of Gambling on Government Budget: A European Comparison with a Focus on Italy”, International Economics, 68(2), pp. 187-212
  18. DPA (Dipartimento Nazionale Politiche Antidroga) (2015) Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo stato delle dipendenze, --
  19. Ekholm O., Eiberg S., Davidsen M., Holst M., Larsen C.V., Juel K., (2012) “The Prevalence of Problem Gambling in Denmark in 2005 and 2010: A Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Characterization”, Journal of gambling studies, 9 Nov.
  20. Erbas B., Buchner U.G., (2012) “Pathological gambling: prevalence, diagnosis, comorbidity, and intervention in Germany”, Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 109(10), pp. 173-9
  21. Espelt A., Domingo-Salvany A., Sánchez-Niubód A., Marí-Dell’Olmoa M., Brugal M. T. (2015) “Estimating trends in the prevalence of problematic cocaine use (1999-2008)”, Gaceta Sanitaria, 29(5), pp. 353-357.
  22. Fisher S., (1999) “A prevalence study of gambling and problem gambling in British adolescents”, Addiction Research & Theory, 7(6), pp. 509-38
  23. Fisher S., (2000A) “Developing the DSM-IV-DSM-IV criteria to identify adolescent problem gambling in non-clinical populations”, Journal of gambling studies, 16(2-3), pp. 253-73
  24. Fisher S., (2000B) “Measuring the prevalence of sector-specific problem gambling: a study of casino patrons”, Journal of gambling studies, 16(1), pp. 25-51
  25. Gabe J., Monaghan L., (2013) Key Concepts in Medical Sociology, SAGE Publications Ltd., London
  26. Gainsbury S., Hing N., Suhonen N., (2014) “Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: Awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2), pp. 503-519
  27. Gossop M., Darke S., Griffiths P., Hando J., Powis B., Hall W. Strang J., (1995) “The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users”, Addiction, 90(5), pp. 607-14
  28. Granero R., Penelo E., Martínez-Giménez R., Alvarez-Moya E., Gómez-Peña M., Aymamí M.N., Bueno B., Fernández-Aranda F., Jiménez-Murcia S., (2009) “Sex differences among treatment-seeking adult pathologic gamblers”, Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(2), pp. 173-180
  29. Grant J.E., Kim S.W., (2002) “Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment”, Comprehensive psychiatry 43(1), pp. 56-62
  30. Griffiths M.D, Wood R.T., Parke J., (2009) “Social responsibility tools in online gambling: A survey of attitudes and behavior among Internet gamblers”, Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12, pp. 413- 21
  31. Griffiths M.D., Wardle J., Orford J., Sproston K., Erens B., (2010) “Gambling, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and health: findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey”, Addiction Research and Theory, 18(2), pp. 208-23
  32. Griffiths M. D., (2010) “Problem gambling in Europe: what do we know?”, Casino & Gaming International, 6(2), pp. 81-84
  33. Heatherton T.F., Kozlowski L.T., Frecker R.C., Fagerström K.O., (1991) “The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire”, British Journal of Addiction, 86(9), pp. 1119-27
  34. Héraud-Bousquet V., Lot F., Esvan M., Cazein F., Laurent C., Warszawski J., Gal-lay A., (2012) “A three source capture-recapture estimate of the number of new HIV diagnoses in children in France from 2003-2006 with multiple imputation of variable of heterogeneous catchability”, BMC Infectious Diseases, 12, 251
  35. Hill S.Y., (2002) “Vulnerability to alcoholism in women. Genetic and cultural factors”, Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 12, pp. 9-28
  36. Hodgins D.C., Stea J.N., Grant J.E., (2011) “Gambling disorders”, The Lancet, 378(9806), pp. 1874-1884
  37. Ibañez A., Perez de Castro I., Fernandez-Piqueras J., Blanco C., Saiz-Ruiz J., (2000) “Pathological gambling and DNA polymorphic markers at MAO-A and MAO-B genes”, Molecular psychiatry, 5(1), pp. 105-09
  38. IPSOS, (2009) British survey of children, the national lottery and gambling 2008-2009: Report of quantitive survey, London, National Lottery Commission
  39. Jacques C., Ladouceur R., Ferland F., (2000) “Impact of availability on gambling: a longitudinal study”, Canadian Journal of Psichiatry, 45(9), pp. 810-5
  40. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, (2017), La prevenzione: definizioni, --
  41. LaPlante D.A., Nelson S.E., LaBrie R.A., Shaffer H.J., (2006) “Men & Women Playing Games: Gender and the Gambling Preferences of Iowa Gambling Treatment Program Participants”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(1), pp. 65-80
  42. Lesieur H.R., Blume S.B., (1987) “The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers”, American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), pp. 1184-8
  43. Lesieur H., Blume S.B., (1991) “When lady luck loses: women and compulsive gambling”, in N. Van Den Bergh (Ed.), Feminist Perspectives on Addictions, Springer, New York
  44. Littler A., (2007) “The regulation of gambling at European level. The balance to be found”, ERA Forum, 8(3), pp. 357-371
  45. Magoon M.E., Ingersoll G.M., (2006) “Parental modeling, attachment and supervision ad moderators adolescent gambling”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(1), pp. 1-22
  46. Matteucci N., Vieira Lima S., (2016) “Women and Happiness”, in Bruni L. Porta P., (Eds.) (2015) Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Happiness and Quality of Life, Edward Elgar, London
  47. McIntyre R.S., McElroy S.L., Konarski J.Z., Soczynska J.K., Wilkins K., Kennedy S.H., (2007) “Problem gambling in bipolar disorder: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey”, Biological Psychiatry, 61, pp. 223-24
  48. Morgan J.F., Reid F., Lacey J.H., (1999) “The SCOFF questionnaire: assessment of a new screening tool for eating disorders”, British Medical Journal, Dec 4, 319 (7223), pp. 1467-68
  49. Muelleman R.L, DenOtter T., Wadman M.C., Tran T.P., Anderson J., (2002) “Problem gambling in the partner of the emergency department patients as a risk for intimate partner violence”, The Journal of emergency medicine, 23(3), pp. 307-12
  50. Parlamento Italiano, (2015) Il gioco d’azzardo patologico e la tutela dei minori --
  51. Parker J.D.A., Taylor R.N., Eastabrook J.M., Schell S.L., Wood L.M., (2008) “Problem gambling in adolescence: Relationships with internet misuse, gaming abuse and emotional intelligence”, Personality and individual differences, 45(2), pp. 174-80
  52. Pavarin R., Salsi A., Savioli V., (1997) “Stima della prevalenza di tossicodipendenti nella città di Bologna nel 1997 e analisi del sommerso”, Bollettino per le Farmacodipendenze e l’Alcolismo, 21, pp. 7-11
  53. Pavarin R.M., (2006) “Silver Shadow: la normalità deviante. Indagine su dipendenza da gioco, uso di stupefacenti e abuso di alcol tra i frequentatori dei bar nei quartieri di Bologna” in: Pavarin RM, Albertazzi V (a cura di), Uso e abuso di sostanze, pp. 181-208, Carocci, Roma
  54. Pavarin R.M., Marani S., Turino E., Limonta N., Sanchini S., Colaninno M. (2012) “Stima della prevalenza di soggetti con gioco d’azzardo patologico nell’area metropolitana di Bologna e analisi del sommerso”, Italian Journal on Addiction, 2(3-4), pp. 98-102
  55. Pavarin R.M., Consonni D., (2013) “Early adolescents and Substance use”, Journal of Addiction, Hindawy Publisching Corporation
  56. Pavarin R., Colaninno M., Gessi A., Marani S., Turino E., Limonta N., Sanchini S., Dinelli M., Mannari P., Pioli E., (2013) “Differenze fra le donne: uno studio su consumi e dipendenze con e senza sostanze”, Italian Journal on Addiction, Vol. 3/2, p. 25-30
  57. Pavarin R.M., Biolcati R., (2014) “Women between normality and dependence: a study of problematic consumption and dependence in women aged 30-50 years”, Journal of Substance Use, (0), pp. 1-8
  58. Pavarin R., (2015) “Giovani, consumi problematici e dipendenze con e senza sostanze: i risultati di una ricerca multicentrica”, in: Pavarin R., Corbetta D., (a cura di), Dipendenze con e senza sostanze: teoria, ricerca e modelli di intervento. Salute e Società, Milano, FrancoAngeli
  59. Pavarin R.M., Zenesini C., Fioritti A., (2017) “Estimate of the prevalence of subjects with gambling-related problems requiring treatment: a study in Northern Italy”, Annali dell’Istituto superiore di sanità, 53(4), pp. 330-333
  60. Petry N.M., Armentano C., (1999) “Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of pathological gambling: a review”, American Psychiatric Association, 50-(8), pp. 1021-27
  61. Potenza M.N., Steinberg M.A., McLaughlin S.D., Wu R., Rounsaville B.J., O’Malley S.S., (2001) “Gender-Related Differences in the Characteristics of Problem Gamblers Using a Gambling Helpline”, The American journal of psychiatry, 158(9), pp. 1500-05
  62. Potenza M.N., Wareham J.D., Steinberg M.A., Rugle L., Cavallo D.A., Krishnan-Sarin S., Desai R.A., (2011) “Correlates of at-risk/problem internet gambling in adolescents”, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, (50), pp. 150-59 Raylu N., Oei T.P., (2004) “Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling”, Clinical psychology review, 23(8), pp. 1087-114
  63. Regione Emilia Romagna, (2016 A) Gioco d'azzardo: rischi e cura --
  64. Regione Emilia Romagna, (2016 B), Legge Regionale 28 Ottobre 2016, n.18, Testo unico per la promozione della legalità e per la valorizzazione della cittadinanza e dell’economia responsabili
  65. Ronzitti S., Lutri V., Smith N., Clerici M., Bowden-Jones H., (2016) “Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers”, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(2), pp. 231-238
  66. Sassen M., Kraus L., Buhringer G., (2011) “Differences in pathological gambling prevalence estimates: facts or artifacts?”, International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 20(4), pp. 83-99
  67. Sirianni G., (2012) “Il gioco pubblico dal monopolio fiscale alla regolamentazione, nella crisi dello Stato sociale”, Diritto pubblico, 18(3), pp. 801-836
  68. Slutske W. S., Piasecki T. M., Deutsch A. R., Statham D. J., Martin N.G., (2015) “Telescoping and gender differences in the time course of disordered gambling: evidence from a general population sample”, Addiction, 110(1), pp. 144-151
  69. Stea J.N., Hodgins D.C., (2011) “A critical review of treatment approaches for gambling disorders”, Current Drug Abuse Review, 4(2), pp. 67-80
  70. Stinchfield R., (2003) “Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of a measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling”, The American journal of psychiatry, 160(41), pp. 180-82
  71. Stucki S., Rihs-Middel M., (2007) “Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: An update”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(3), pp. 245-257
  72. Sussman S., Lisha N., Griffiths M., (2011) “Prevalence of the addictions: a problem of the majority or the minority?”, Evaluation & the health professions, 34(1), pp. 3-56
  73. Suurvali H., Cordingley J., Hodgins D.C., Cunningham J., (2009) “Barriers to seeking help for gambling problems: A review of the empirical literature”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(3), pp. 407-424
  74. Suurvali H., Hodgins D.C., Cunningham J.A., (2010) “Motivators for resolving or seeking help for gambling problems: A review of the empirical literature”, Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(1), pp. 1-33
  75. Suurvali H., Hodgins D., Toneatto T., Cunningham J., (2015) “Treatment seeking among Ontario problem gamblers: Results of a population survey”, Psychiatric Service, 59(11), pp. 1343-1346
  76. Uhl A., (2007) “Begriffe, Konzepte und Menschenbilder in der Suchtprävention”, SuchtMagazin, 4, pp. 3-11
  77. Valence G., D’Astous A., Fortier L., (1988) “Compulsive buying: Concept and measurement”, Journal of Consumer Policy, 11(4), pp. 419-33
  78. Valencia-Martín J.L., Galán I., Rodríguez-Artalejo F., (2008) “The joint association of average volume of alcohol and binge drinking with hazardous driving behaviour and traffic crashes”, Addiction, 103(5), pp. 749-57
  79. Vetere C., (2003) “Il gioco d’azzardo nella letteratura delle dipendenze”, Bollettino per le Farmacodipendenze e l’Alcolismo, 26(4)
  80. Volberg R.A., Abbott M.W., Ronnberg S., Munck I.M., (2001) “Prevalence and risks of pathological gambling in Sweden”, Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 104(4), pp. 250-56
  81. Wardle H., Moody A., Spence S., Orford J., Volberg R., Jotangia D., Griffiths M., Hussey M., Dobbie F., (2012) British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, --
  82. Welte J.W., Barnes G.M., Wieczorek W.F., Tidwell M.C., Prker J.C., (2004) “Risk factor for pathological gambling”, Addictive behaviors, 29(2), pp. 323-35
  83. Young K.S., (1996) “Psychology of computer use: XL. Addictive use of the Internet: a case that breaks the stereotype”, Psychological reports, 79(3), pp. 899-902

  • Il Servizio Ausl di Bologna per il Disturbo del Gioco d'Azzardo (DGA) Chiara Persichella, Roberta Agusto, Simonette Sermi, Teresa Testigrosso, Raffaella Campalastri, in SICUREZZA E SCIENZE SOCIALI 1/2022 pp.107
    DOI: 10.3280/SISS2022-001009

Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Gioco problematico: evidenze empiriche e riflessioni per la prevenzione in "PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro" 3/2016, pp 16-40, DOI: 10.3280/PRI2016-003003