An exclusive inclusion. Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region), China

Journal title TERRITORIO
Author/s Anna Vincenza Nufrio, José Miguel Fernández Güell
Publishing Year 2019 Issue 2019/88
Language Italian Pages 11 P. 109-119 File size 2519 KB
DOI 10.3280/TR2019-088017
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This essay analyses, through an interdisciplinary historical criticism, how the changing nature of the relations between territory, power, governance and social identity have been expressed, over time, and on territorial issues, between Hong Kong and China. It is observed that the practices of continuous (re)definition of the international border, as a result of the British colonial geopolitics, has led to the application of a centerperiphery development paradigm and, on an urban scale, to the adoption of ‘spatial segregation’ and ‘exclusive social inclusion’ model, as well as to the design and production of quality living spaces only for privileged social groups.

Keywords: Frontier Closed Area; cross-border planning; border studies

  1. Agnew J., 2008, ≪Borders on the Mind: Re-framing Border Thinking≫. Ethics and Global Politics, 1, 4: 175-191.
  2. Appadurai A., 1996, ≪Sovereignty Without Territoriality: Notes for a Postnational Geography≫. In: Yaeger P. (ed.), The Geography of Identity. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 40-58.
  3. Balibar E., 1998, ≪The borders of Europe≫. In: Cheah P., Robbins B. (eds.), Cosmopolitics: Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 216-229.
  4. Boggs W., 1940, International Boundaries. A Study of Boundary Functions and Problems. New York: Columbia University Press.
  5. Breitung W., 2009, ≪Macau Residents as Border People-A Changing Border Regime from a Sociocultural Perspective≫. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 38, 1: 102-127 (online).
  6. Breitung W., 2011, ≪Borders and the City: Intra-urban Boundaries in Guanzhou (China)≫. Quaestiones Geographicae, 30, 4: 55-61.
  7. Bremmer A.G., Lung D.P.Y., 2003, ≪Spaces of Exclusion: The Significance of Cultural Identity in the Formation of European Residential Districts in British Hong Kong, 1877-1904≫. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21, 2: 223-252.
  8. Brigham A.P., 1919, ≪Principles in the Determination of Boundaries ≫. Geographical Review, 7, 4: 201-219.
  9. Brunet-Jailly E., 2010, ≪The State of Borders and Borderlands studies 2009: A Historical View and View from the Journal of Borderland Studies≫. Eurasia Border Review, 1, 1: 1-15. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  10. Carrol J.M., 1999, ≪Chinese Collaboration in the Making of British Hong Kong≫. In: Ngo T-W., Hong Kong’s History. State and society under Colonial Rule. London: Routledge, 13-29.
  11. Law W.S., 2009, Collaborative Colonial Power. The Making of the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  12. Chadwick O., 1882, Mr. Chadwick’s Reports on the Sanitary Condition of Hong Kong. With Appendices and Plans. Hong Kong: Colonial Office. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  13. Chan W.K., 1991, The making of Hong Kong Society: Three Studies of Class Formation in the Early Hong Kong. New York: Oxford University Press.
  14. Chan R.C.K., Yao, Y.M., Zhao S.X.B., 2003, ≪Self-help Housing Strategy for Temporary Populations in Guanzhou≫. Habitat International, 27, 1: 9-35. DOI: 10.1016/S0197-3975(02)00033-4
  15. Chen X., 2005, As Border Bend. Transnational Spaces on the Pacific Rim, New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  16. Cheng A.K.C., 2012, The Blame Game: How Colonial Legacies in Hong Kong Shape Street Vendor and Public Space Policies, Tesi di Master in Urban Studies and Planning. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  17. Cutberth A.R., McKinnel K.G., 1997, ≪Ambiguous space, ambiguous rights-corporate power and social control in Hong Kong≫. Cities, 14, 5: 295-311. DOI: 10.1016/S0264-2751(97)00020-6
  18. Deleuze G., Guattari F., 2010, Millepiani. Capitalismo e Schizofrenia. Roma: Castelvecchi.
  19. Elden S., 2013, ≪Secure the Volume: Vertical Geopolitics and the Depth of Power≫. Political Geography, 34: 52-54.
  20. Endacott G. B., 1964, An Eastern Entrepot. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
  21. Epstein C.F., 1992, ≪Thinkerbells and Pinups: The Construction and Reconstruction of Gender Boundaries at Work≫. In: Lamont M., Fourier M. (eds.), Cultivating Differences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 233-256.
  22. Faure D., 2005, ≪The Common People in Hong Kong History: Their Livelihood and Aspirations Until the 1930s≫. In: Lee P.T. (ed.), Colonial Hong Kong and Modern China. Interaction and Reintegration. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 9-38.
  23. Fontanari E., 2016, ≪Soggettivita en transit. (Im)mobilita dei rifugiati in Europa tra sistemi di controllo e pratiche quotidiane di attraversamento dei confini≫. Mondi Migranti, 1: 39-60.
  24. Franco M., 2016, L’assedio. Come l’immigrazione sta cambiando il volto dell’Europa e la nostra vita quotidiana. Milano: Mondadori.
  25. Grosfoguel R., 2002, ≪Colonial Difference, Geopolitics of Knowledge and global Coloniality in the Modern/Colonial Capitalist World-System≫. Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 25, 3: 203-224.
  26. Howell P., 2009, Geographies of Regulation: Policing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Britain and the Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  27. Hui P-K., 1999, ≪Compradors Politics and Middleman Capitalism≫. In: Ngo T-W. (ed.), Hong Kong’s History. State and society under Colonial Rule. London: Routledge, 30-45.
  28. Ip I.C., 2004, ≪Welfare Good or Colonial Citizenship? A Case Study of Early Resettlement Housing≫. In: Ku A.S., Pun N. (eds.), Remaking citizenship in Hong Kong: Community, nation and the global city. Curzon: Routledge, 37-53.
  29. Kahler M., Walter B.F., 2006, Territoriality and conflict in an era of globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  30. Kymlicka W., 2006, Fronteras Territoriales. Madrid: Trotta.
  31. Lam J., 2002, ≪Globalization and Fiscal Management in Hong Kong≫. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, 4, 1: 62-83. DOI: 10.1111/1540-6210.00275
  32. Lamont M., Molnar V., 2002, ≪The Study of Boundaries in the Social Sciences≫. Annual Reviews of sociology, 28, 1: 167-195.
  33. Lee L.O-F., 2010, City Between Worlds: My Hong Kong. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  34. Lethbridge H.J., 1969, ≪Hong Kong under Japanese Occupation: Changes in Social Structure≫. In: Jarvie C., Agassi J. (eds.), Hong Kong: A Society in Transition. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 77-128.
  35. Mar P., 2002, Accommodating Places: A Migrant Ethnography of two Cities (Hong Kong and Sidney), tesi di Dottorato, Department of Anthropology. Sidney: University of Sidney. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  36. McGee T.G., 1967, The Southeast Asian City. Londra: Bell.
  37. Newman D., 2006, ≪The Resilience of Territorial Conflict in an Era of Globalization≫. In: Kahler, Walter (2006: 85-110).
  38. McDonogh G., Wong C.H.Y., 2010, ≪Istantanee di una citta divisa. Spazi della differenza nella Hong Kong coloniale e post-coloniale≫. In: Nufrio A.V. (a cura di), Le frontiere infra-architettoniche. Barcelona, l’Avana, Hong Kong. Ginevra: Nomad//Yuzu-Lab.
  39. O’Dowd L., 2003, ≪The Changing Significance of European Borders≫. In: O’Dowd L., Anderson J., Wilson T. (eds.), New Borders for a New Europe. London: Routledge, 13-36.
  40. Ohmae K., 1995, The End of the Nation-State. New York: Free Press.
  41. Paasi A., Prokkola E.K., 2008, ≪Regional Dynamics, Cross-border Work and Everyday Life at the Finnish-Swedish Border≫. Space and Polity, 12, 1: 13-29. DOI: 10.1080/13562570801969366
  42. Paasi A., 2009a, ≪The Resurgence of the ‘Region’ and ‘Regional Identity’: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Observations on the Regional Dynamics in Europe≫. Review of International Studies, 35, S1: 121-146. DOI: 10.1017/S0260210509008456
  43. Paasi A., 2009b, ≪Bounded Spaces in a ‘Borderless World’: Border Studies, Power and the Anatomy of Territory≫. Journal of Power, 2, 2: 213-234. DOI: 10.1080/17540290903064275
  44. Pratt M., 2010, ≪The Scholar-Practitioner Interface in Boundary Studies≫. Eurasia Border Review, 1, 1: 29-36.
  45. Robbins A., 2003, ≪Almost Liberal: The British Government of Hong Kong in the Mid-Nineteenth Century≫. Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal, Spring: 32-38. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  46. Rosneau J.N., 1999, Along the Domestic-Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  47. Rumford C., 2006, ≪Theorizing Borders≫. European Journal of Social Theory, 9, 2: 155-169. DOI: 10.1177/1368431006063330
  48. Sassen S., 2013, ≪When the Center no Longer Holds: Cities as Frontier Zones≫. Cities, 34, 2: 67-70.
  49. Scott J.W., 2012, ≪European Politics of Borders. Borders Symbolism and Cross-Border Cooperation≫. In: Wilson T. M., Donnan H. (eds.), A Companion to Border Studies. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 83-89.
  50. Sloterdijk P., 2004, Spheres III: Foams, Plural Spherology. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag.Smart A., Tang W-S. tang, 2005, ≪Irregular Trajectories: Illegal building in Mainland China and Hong Kong≫. In: Ma L.J.C., Wu F. (eds.), Restructuring the Chinese city: Changing Society, Economy and Space. London: Routledge, 71-86.
  51. Strange S., 1996, The Retreat of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  52. Tang W-Y, 1996, Hong Kong: An Unidentified Subject Under Colonialism, tesi di Master, Institute of Education, The University of Hong Kong. -- accesso: 2019.02.20).
  53. Treagear T.R., Berry L., 1959, The Development of Hongkong and Kowloon as Told in Maps. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  54. Tse C.K.C., 2006, The Fortified Line: Police Observation Posts in the Frontier Closed Area at the Border of Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Tesi di Master, Faculty of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong. -- (ultimo accesso: 2019.02.20).
  55. Wue R., Lai E.K., Waley-Cohen J., 1997, Picturing Hong Kong: Photography 1855-1910. New York: Asia Society Galleries.
  56. Yeoh B.S.A., 2003, Contesting Space in Colonial Singapore: Power Relations and the Urban Built Environment. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
  57. Yin L.H., 2010, ≪Pre-war Tong Lau: A Hong Kong Shophouse Typology≫. Documento d’archivio, d’uso ristretto dell’Hong Kong Antiquities and Monuments Office, Hong Kong Development Bureau. Commissioner for Heritage’s Office, 19 April, 1-17.
  58. Vinokurov E.Y., 2007, A Theory of Enclaves, Lanham: Lexington Books.
  59. Zanini P., 2002, Significati del confine. I limiti naturali, storici, mentali. Milano: Mondadori.

Anna Vincenza Nufrio, José Miguel Fernández Güell, Una inclusione esclusiva. Hong Kong (sar), Cina in "TERRITORIO" 88/2019, pp 109-119, DOI: 10.3280/TR2019-088017