The influence of Mindfulness and General Wellbeing in clinical treatment of tobacco smokers enrolled in a cessation program. A short and long-term evaluation

Author/s Olimpia Pino, Giuliano Giucastro, Roberta Crespi
Publishing Year 2020 Issue 2020/3
Language Italian Pages 22 P. 849-870 File size 279 KB
DOI 10.3280/RIP2020-003004
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Cigarette smoking is a complex phenomenon and its consequences for hu-man body are increasingly known. Basing on the results from previous research on relationship between Mindfulness and smoking abstinence in which it emer-ged that subjects who had high levels of dispositional Mindfulness had a greater chance of success in a smoking cessation program, the aim of the present study was to extend the analysis in a larger group of individuals subjected to pharma-cological treatment and motivational counselling, which were monitored both at the first 24-h of complete abstention and at the follow-up. The study involved 53 individuals who participated to a smoke cessation program completing the Fa-gerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Abstinence was recorded in several sessions also through the quantitative determination of the value of carbon monoxide on the expired air (CO) from the lungs that contribu-tes to a greater objectivity of the outcome measure. Data did not confirm the role of Mindfulness as a predictor of abstinence. MAAS and GHQ-12 scores did not result in relationship with the outcome of nicotine cessation program. Therefore, Mindfulness construct would seem not to be a predictor of success in a smoking cessation program. The use of more sensitive tools in detecting the Mindfulness trait could lead to appropriate results as a more structured cognitive behavioural treatment could be contributing to support habitual smokers quit.

Keywords: Nicotine addiction, tobacco addiction, smoking, smoke cessation programs, mindfulness.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Washington, D.C.: APA. Trad. it.: DSM-5. Manuale diagnostico e statistico dei disturbi mentali. Quinta edizione. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2014.
  2. Baer, R.A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27-45.
  3. Baker, T.B., Piper, M.E., McCarthy, D.E., Majeskie, M.R., & Fiore, M.C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111(1), 33. DOI: 10.1037/0033295X.111.1.33
  4. Baker, M., & Wurgler, J. (2004). Appearing and disappearing dividends: the link to catering incentives. Journal of Financial. Economics, 73(2), 271-288.
  5. Beirut, L. J., Madden, P. A., Breslau, N., Johnson, E. O., Hatsukami, D., Pomerleau, O. F., Swan, G. E., Rutter, J., Fox, L., Fugman, D., Goate, A.M., Hinrichs, A.L., Konvicka, K., Martin, N.G., Montgomery, G.W., Saccone, N.L. Saccone, S.F., Wang, J.C., Chaise, G.A., Rice, J.P., & Ballinger, D.G. (2006). Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(1), 24-35.
  6. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). The assessment of mindfulness with self-report measures: Existing scales and open issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 191-202.
  7. Bevins, R.A., & Palmatier, M.I. (2004). Extending the role of associative learning processes in nicotine addiction. Behavioral and Cognitive. Neuroscience Reviews, 3(3), 143-158.
  8. Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z.V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230-241.
  9. Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G.A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
  10. Brewer, J.A., Mallik, S., Babuscio, T.A., Nich, C., Johnson, H.E., Deleone, C.M., Minnix-Cotton, C.A., Byrne, S.A., Kober, H., Weinstein, A.J., Carroll, K.M., & Rounsaville, B.J. (2011). Mindfulness training for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 72-80.
  11. Brown, K.W., & Ryan R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
  12. Cardaciotto, L., Herbert, J.D., Forman, E.M., Moitra, E., & Farrow, V. (2008). The assessment of present moment awareness and acceptance: the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Assessment, 15, 204-223. DOI: 10.1177/1073191107311467
  13. Chiesa, A. (2013). The difficulty of defining mindfulness: current thought and critical issues. Mindfulness, 4(3), 255-268.
  14. Coffey, K.A., & Hartman, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13(2), 79-91.
  15. Davidson, R.J., & Kaszniak, A.W. (2015). Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. American Psychologist, 70(7), 581.
  16. Davis, J.M., Fleming, M.F., Bonus, K.A., & Baker, T.B. (2007). A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7 (1), 1-7. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-7-2
  17. De Souza, I.C.W., de Barros, V.V., Gomide, H.P., Miranda, T.C.M., de Paula Menezes, V., Kozasa, E.H., & Noto, A.R. (2015). Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of smoking: a systematic literature review. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(3), 129-140.
  18. Doll, R., Peto, R., Wheatley, K., Gray, R., & Sutherland, I. (1994). Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors. BMJ, 309(6959), 901-911.
  19. Fidler, J.A., & West, R. (2009). Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(10), 1182-1188.
  20. File, S.E., Cheeta, S., & Kenny, P. J. (2000). Neurobiological mechanisms by which nicotine mediates different types of anxiety. European Journal of Pharmacology, 393(1-3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/S00142999(99)00889-4
  21. Free, C., Phillips, G., Galli, L., Watson, L., Felix, L., Edwards, P., Patel, V., & Haines, A. (2013). The effectiveness of mobile-health technology-based health behaviour change or disease management interventions for health care consumers: A systematic review. PLoS Medicine, 10(1), e1001362.
  22. Froeliger, B., Mathew, A.R., McConnell, P.A. et al. (2017). Restructuring reward mechanisms in nicotine addiction: a pilot fMRI study of Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for cigarette smokers, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, DOI: 10.1155/2017/7018014
  23. Gellert, C., Schoettker, B., & Brenner, H. (2012). Smoking and all-cause mortality in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(11), 837-844.
  24. Giovannini, C., Giromini, L., Bonalume, L., Tagini, A., Lang, M., & Amadei, G. (2014). The Italian five facet mindfulness questionnaire: a contribution to its validity and reliability. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36(3), 415-423.
  25. Giucastro, G., Pelosi, A. & Pino, O. (2016). Dimensioni temperamentali ed effetti della terapia farmacologica sull’astensione dal fumo. Tabaccologia, 3, 20-28.
  26. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining Mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re) invention of Mindfulness: comment on Brown Et Al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1034-1040.
  27. Heatherton, T.F., Kozlowski, L.T., Frecker, R.C. & Fagerström, K.O. (1991). The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1119-1127.
  28. Japuntich, S.J., Piper, M.E., Leventhal, A.M., Bolt, D.M., & Baker, T.B. (2011). The effect of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation milestones. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 34-42. DOI: 10.1037/2332-2136.1.S.58
  29. Jha, P., Ramasundarahettige, C., Landsman, V., Rostron, B., Thun, M., Anderson, R.N., McAfee, T., & Peto, R. (2013). 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(4), 341-350.
  30. Kabat/Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness/based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.
  31. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
  32. Kannel, W.B. (1981). Update on the role of cigarette smoking in coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 101(3), 319-328. DOI: 10.1016/0002-8703(81)90197-6
  33. Lietz, M., Berges, A., Lebrun, S., Meurrens, K., Steffen, Y., Stolle, K., Schueller, J., Boue, S., Vuillaume, G., Vanscheeuwijck, P., Moehring, M., Schlage, W., De Leon, H., Hoeng, J., & Peitsch, M. (2013). Cigarette-smoke-induced atherogenic lipid profiles in plasma and vascular tissue of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are attenuated by smoking cessation. Atherosclerosis, 229(1), 86-93.
  34. MacKillop, J., Mattson, R.E., Anderson, Mackillop, E.J., Castelda, B.A. & Donovick, P.J. (2007). Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in undergraduate hazardous drinkers and controls. Journal of Study of Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 785-788.
  35. Marino, L., Latini, R., & Barbano, G. (1999). Definition of a reliable threshold value for detecting current smokers by CO measurement: Preliminary results. Communication presented at The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Second European Conference on Tobacco Addiction. London: England November 5th-26th. pp. 59.
  36. Mathis, C., Poussin, C., Weisensee, D., Gebel, S., Hengstermann, A., Sewer, A., Belcastro, V., Xiang, Y., Ansari, S., Wagner, S., Hoeng, J., & Peitsch, M. (2013). Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers. American Journal of Physiology Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 304(7): 489-503.
  37. Milton, A.L., & Everitt, B.J. (2012). The persistence of maladaptive memory: Addiction, drug memories and anti-relapse treatments. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(4), 1119-1139.
  38. Patnode, C.D., Henderson, J.T., Thompson, J.H., Senger, C.A., Fortmann, S.P., & Whitlock, E.P. (2015). Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant women: a review of reviews for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163(8), 608-621.
  39. Piccinelli, M., Bisoffi, G., Bon, M.G., Cunico, L. & Tansella, M. (1993). Validity and test-retest reliability of the Italian version of the 12-item General Heath Questionnaire in general practice: a comparison between three scoring methods. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34, 198-205. DOI: 10.1016/0010-440X(93)90048-9
  40. Pino, O., Girolami, A., & Giucastro, G. (2019). Does the mindful attention awareness predict abstinence from nicotine smoking 24-h into a cessation programme? Italian Journal of Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy, 25(2), 151-164.
  41. Pino, O., Girolami, A., & Giucastro, G. (2018). Mindful attention awareness as a predictor of smoking quitting in nicotine cessation treatment: preliminary data from a pilot study. EC Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(4), 162-168.
  42. Pino, O., Giucastro, G. & Pelosi, A. (2015). Personality dimensions, smoking behavior and drug effects on nicotine dependence: evidence for predicting tobacco withdrawal. International Journal of Neuroscience and Behavior Sciences, 3 (2), 17-24.
  43. Saccone, S.F., Hinrichs, A.L., Saccone, N.L., Chase, G.A., Konvicka, K., Madden, P.A., Breslau, N., Johnson, E.O., Hatsukami, D., Pomerleau, O., Swan, G.E., Goate, A.M., Rutter, J., Bertelsen, S., Fox, L., Fugman, D., Martin, N.G., Montgomery, G.W., Wang, J.C, Ballinger, D.G., Rice, J.P., & Bierut, L.J. (2007). Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713. SNPs. Human Molecular Genetics, 16(1), 36-49.
  44. Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3-17.
  45. Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386.
  46. Smallwood, J., McSpadden, M., & Schooler, J.W. (2007). The lights are on but no one’s home: Metaawareness and the decoupling of attention when the mind wanders. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(3), 527-533. DOI: 10.3758/BF03194102
  47. Sullivan, P.F., & Kendler, K.S. (1999). The genetic epidemiology of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1(Suppl_2), S51-S57. DOI: 10.1080/14622299050011811
  48. Swan, G.E., McClure, J.B., Jack, L.M., Zbikowski, S.M., Javitz, H.S., Catz, S.L., Deprey, M., Richards, J., & McAfee, T.A. (2010). Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(5), 482-490.
  49. Tang, Y-Y., Tang, R., & Posner, M.I. (2013). Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction. PNAS, 110(34), 13971-1397.
  50. Taylor, G., McNeill, A., Girling, A., Farley, A., Lindson-Hawley, N., & Aveyard, P. (2014). Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 348: g1151.
  51. Tomlinson, E.R., Yousaf, O., Vittersø, A.D. & Jones, L. (2018). Dispositional Mindfulness and psychological health: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 9, 23-43.
  52. Tronson, N.C., & Taylor, J.R. (2013). Addiction: A drug-induced disorder of memory reconsolidation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(4), 573-580.
  53. Van Dam, N.T., Earleywine, M., & Borders, A. (2010). Measuring mindfulness? An item response theory analysis of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(7), 805-810.
  54. Veneziani, C.A., & Voci, A. (2015). The Italian adaptation of the Mindful Awareness Attention Scale and its relation with individual differences and quality of life indexes. Mindfulness, 6(2), 373-381.
  55. Vidrine, J.I., Businelle, M.S., Reitzel, L.R., Cao, Y., Cinciripini, P.M., Marcus, M. T., Li, Y., & Wetter, D.W. (2015). Coping mediates the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, affect, and depression among smokers preparing to quit. Mindfulness, 6(3), 433-443.
  56. Weik, K.E., & Sutcliffe, K.M. (2007). Managing the unexpected: resilient performance in an age of uncertainty. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
  57. Williams, J.M., Foulds, J., Dwyer, M., Order-Connors, B., Springer, M., Gadde, P., & Ziedonis, D.M. (2005). The integration of tobacco dependence treatment and tobacco-free standards into residential addictions treatment in New Jersey. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28(4), 331-340.
  58. World Health Organization. (2015). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco. Geneva: World Health Organization. --

Olimpia Pino, Giuliano Giucastro, Roberta Crespi, L’influenza della mindfulness e del benessere generale nel trattamento clinico dei fumatori di tabacco in un programma di disassuefazione. Una valutazione a breve e lungo termine in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 3/2020, pp 849-870, DOI: 10.3280/RIP2020-003004