Psychological dimensions supporting physical activity during the COVID-19 lockdown

Author/s Christel Galvani, Ginevra Guastone, Daniela Villani, Alessandro Antonietti
Publishing Year 2023 Issue 2023/3
Language Italian Pages 12 P. 125-136 File size 208 KB
DOI 10.3280/PDS2023-003007
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

This study was conducted during the lockdown period caused by the COVID-19 virus, which resulted in a strong negative psychological impact on most people’s life. This impact had different consequences on people’s habits, including physical activity (PA), which was compromised by a lack of motivation. High levels of motivation for PA were found to be fun-damental for practicing the correct amount of exercise. The study aimed at identifying possible relationships between chronotype and self-efficacy, resilience and motivation for change in relation to physical activity during COVID-19. One hundred and fifty-nine adults were re-cruited. Four questionnaires were administered online: the Morningness-Eveningness Ques-tionnaire (MEQ) to identify the chronotype, the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) to evaluate self-efficacy, the Resilience Scale (RS-14) to categorize resilience, and the Assessing Motiva-tion for Change towards Physical Activity (MAC2R-PA) to detect the motivation for change towards physical activity. Morning-type individuals were found to have significantly higher values than evening- and intermediate-types in terms of both self-efficacy and resilience. There was a significant, high, positive correlation between self-efficacy and resilience and a positive, significant relationship was found between motivation for change towards physical activity and high resilience scores, which explained the 53% of the variance. In conclusion, the moti-vation for change related to physical activity is supported by a high level of resilience. Strengthening one’s ability to cope positively with negative events is therefore essential to keep motivation for physical activity high in times of a health emergency, which in turn seems to be essential for staying physically active.

Keywords: physical activity, chronotype, self-efficacy, resilience, motivation, COVID-19

  1. Ammar A., Brach M., Trabelsi K., Chtourou H., Boukhris O., Masmoudi L. and ECLB-COVID19 Consortium (2020). Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey. Nutrients, 12(6): 1583.
  2. Bandura A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3): 359-373.
  3. Callegari C., Bertù L., Lucano M., Ielmini M., Braggio E. and Vender S. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 9: 277. DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S11565
  4. Cataldo R., John J., Chandran L., Pati S. and Shroyer A.L. (2013). Impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy in youths: a systematic review. ISRN Obesity, 586497. DOI: 10.1155/2013/58649
  5. Cheval B., Sivaramakrishnan H., Maltagliati S., Fessler L., Forestier C., Sarrazin P. and Boisgontier M.P. (2021). Relationships between changes in self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in France and Switzerland. Journal of Sports Sciences, 39(6): 699-704. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.184139
  6. Cohen J. (1988). Set correlation and contingency tables. Applied Psychological Measurement, 12(4): 425-434.
  7. Deci E.L. and Ryan R.M. (1985). Cognitive evaluation theory. In Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. perspectives in social psychology (pp. 43-85). Springer: Boston, MA.
  8. Fletcher D. and Sarkar M. (2016). Mental fortitude training: An evidence-based approach to developing psychological resilience for sustained success. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 7(3): 135-157.
  9. Guillén F. and Laborde S. (2014). Higher-order structure of mental toughness and the analysis of latent mean differences between athletes from 34 disciplines and non-athletes. Personality and Individual Differences, 60: 30-35.
  10. Hidalgo M.P., Caumo W., Posser M., Coccaro S.B., Camozzato A.L. and Chaves M.L.F. (2009). Relationship between depressive mood and chronotype in healthy subjects. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(3): 283-290.
  11. Horne J.A. and Ostberg O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2): 97-110.
  12. Laborde S., Guillen F., Dosseville F. and Allen M.S. (2015). Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences. Chronobiology International, 32(7): 942-951. DOI: 10.3109/07420528.2015.105575
  13. Leyton-Román M., Núñez J.L. and Jiménez-Castuera R. (2020). The importance of supporting student autonomy in physical education classes to improve intention to be physically active. Sustainability, 12(10): 4251.
  14. Luthar S.S., Cicchetti D. and Becker B. (2000). The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3): 543-562. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.0016
  15. Maugeri G., Castrogiovanni P., Battaglia G., Pippi R., D’Agata V., Palma A. ... and Musumeci G. (2020). The impact of physical activity on psychological health during Covid-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon, 6(6): e04315.
  16. Mecacci L. and Zani A. (1983). Morningness-eveningness preferences and sleep-waking diary data of morning and evening types in student and worker samples. Ergonomics, 26(12): 1147-1153. DOI: 10.1080/0014013830896345
  17. Nauha L., Jurvelin H., Ala‐Mursula L., Niemelä M., Jämsä T., Kangas M. and Korpelainen R. (2020). Chronotypes and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time at midlife. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(10): 1930-1938.
  18. Oliveira G.F., Marin T.C., Apolinário N., Rosa-Silva J., Azevêdo L., Ceciliato J., Silva-Batista C. and Brito L.C. (2021). Association of morningness-eveningness preference with physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic social distancing: a cross-sectional survey in Brazil. Chronobiology International, 38(10): 1432–1440. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2021.193127
  19. Pellerone M., Spinelloa C., Sidoti A. and Micciche S. (2015). Identity, perception of parent-adolescent relation and adjustment in a group of university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 190: 459-464.
  20. Preckel F., Lipnevich A.A., Boehme K., Brandner L., Georgi K., Könen T. and Roberts R.D. (2013). Morningness‐eveningness and educational outcomes: The lark has an advantage over the owl at high school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1): 114-134.
  21. Prochaska J.O. and DiClemente C.C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy: toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 19(3): 276.
  22. Rae D.E., Stephenson K.J. and Roden L.C. (2015). Factors to consider when assessing diurnal variation in sports performance: the influence of chronotype and habitual training time-of-day. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(6): 1339-1349.
  23. Richardson G.E. (2002). The metatheory of resilience and resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3): 307-321.
  24. Roden L.C., Rudner T. and Rae D. (2017). Impact of chronotype on athletic performance: current perspectives. ChronoPhysiology and Therapy, 7: 1-6.
  25. Roeser K., Brückner D., Schwerdtle B., Schlarb A.A. and Kübler A. (2012). Health-related quality of life in adolescent chronotypes—A model for the effects of sleep problems. sleep-related cognitions. and self-efficacy. Chronobiology International, 29(10): 1358-1365. DOI: 10.3109/07420528.2012.72866
  26. Schwarzer R. (1992). Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
  27. Shechter A. and St-Onge M.P. (2014). Delayed sleep timing is associated with low levels of free-living physical activity in normal sleeping adults. Sleep Medicine, 15(12): 1586-1589.
  28. Sibilia L., Schwarzer R. and Jerusalem M. (1995). Adattamento Italiano della Scala Generale di auto-efficacia: auto-efficacia generalizzata. Procedia-Scienze Sociali e Comportamentali. --
  29. Spiller V., Scaglia M., Meneghini S. and Vanzo A. (2009). Assessing motivation for change toward healthy nutrition and regular physical activity. Validation of two sets of instruments. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2(1): 41-47.
  30. Treasure D.C. and Robert G.C. (2001). Students’ perceptions of the motivational climate, achievement beliefs, and satisfaction in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(2): 165-175. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2001.1060894
  31. Vitale J.A. and Weydahl A. (2017). Chronotype, physical activity, and sport performance: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 47(9): 1859-1868.
  32. Volz S.C., Furman C.R. and Rothman A.J. (2021). Psychological correlates of perceived physical activity engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic among previously active individuals. Behavioral Medicine (Washington, D.C.), 49(1): 7-14. DOI: 10.1080/08964289.2021.192981
  33. Wagnild G.M. and Young H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2): 165-17847.
  34. Zach S., Fernandez-Rio J., Zeev A., Ophir M. and Eilat-Adar S. (2021). Physical activity, resilience, emotions, moods, and weight control, during the COVID-19 global crisis. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 10(1): 1-9.

Christel Galvani, Ginevra Guastone, Daniela Villani, Alessandro Antonietti, Cronotipo, autoefficacia, resilienza e motivazione al cambiamento a supporto dell’attività fisica durante l’emergenza sanitaria COVID-19 in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2023, pp 125-136, DOI: 10.3280/PDS2023-003007