Taking the bull by the horns. beyond talk in psychological interventions

Author/s Luciano L'Abate
Publishing Year 2015 Issue 2014/3 Language Italian
Pages 34 P. 69-102 File size 170 KB
DOI 10.3280/PSOB2014-003005
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

The purpose of this article is to argue that as long as the therapeutic community relies on commonly accepted sacred cows to produce results, little if any progress will take place. The five sacred cows of traditional psychological interventions (prevention, psychotherapy, and rehabilitation) are based on the following: (a) talk; (b) faceto- face contact; (c) the professionals’ proper style and personality; (d) adding family members, the more people the better; and (e) the more sessions the better. New psychological interventions that may challenge the sacred cows as we know them are as follows: (a) psychoeducational skill training programs; (b) computer assisted interventions, including verbal, visual (i.e., virtual reality), and neurobiofeedback; (c) manualized therapies; (d) eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; and (e) programmed distance writing, as exemplified by mental health workbook. In addition, suggestions for minimally verbal and maximally action-oriented props and prescribed tasks are given.

Keywords: Talk; Face-To-Face Contact; Computer Assisted Interventions; Distance Writing.

  1. Abarbanel A. (1995) “Gates, states, rhythms, and resonances: The scientific basis of neurofeedback training”, Journal of Neurotherapy, 1: 15-38
  2. Austad C.S. (1998) Is long term psychotherapy unethical?, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco
  3. Barlow D.H., Craske M.G. (1994) Client workbook: Mastery of your anxiety and panic II, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX
  4. Baucom D.H., Shoham V., Mueser K.T., Daiuto A.D., Stikle T.R. (1998) “Empirically supported coupled and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 53-88
  5. Beck A. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders, Meridian Press, New York
  6. Berger R., Hannah M.T. (eds.) (1999) Handbook of preventative Approaches to couples therapy, Brunner/Mazel, Bristol, PA Bergin A.E., Garfield S.L. (1994) Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change, John Wiley, New York
  7. Beutler L.E. (1979) “Toward specific psychological therapies for specific conditions”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47: 882-897
  8. Beutler L.E. (1989) “Differential treatment selection: The role of diagnosis in psychotherapy”, Psychotherapy, 26: 271-281
  9. Beutler L.E., Clarkin J.F. (1990) Systematic treatment selection: Toward targeted therapeutic interventions, Brunner/Mazel, New York
  10. Biocca F., Levy M.R. (eds.) (1995) Communication in the age of virtual reality, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ
  11. Birren J.E., Hedlund B. (1987) “Contributions of autobiography to developmental psychology”, in Eisenberg N. (ed.), Contemporary topics in developmental psychology, John Wiley, New York, pp. 394-415
  12. Bloom B.L. (1992) “Computer-assisted psychological intervention: A review and commentary”, Clinical Psychology Review, 12: 169-197
  13. Bodin A.M. (1996) “Relationship conflict – verbal and physical: Conceptualizing an inventory for assessing process and content”, in Kaslow F.W. (ed.), Handbook of relational diagnosis and dysfunctional family patterns, John Wiley, New York, pp. 371-393
  14. Carr K., England R. (eds.) (1995) Simulated and virtual realities: Elements of perception, Taylor & Francis, London, UK
  15. Carson J.G., Chemtob C.M., Rusnak K., Hedlund N.L., Muraoke M.Y. (1998) “Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for combat – related posttraumatic stress disorder”, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11: 3-24.
  16. Chambless D.L. (1997) “In defense of dissemination of empirically supported psychological interventions”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4: 230-235
  17. Craighead W.E., Craighead L.W. (1998) “Manual-based treatments; Suggestions for improving their clinical utility and acceptability”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 403-407
  18. DeRubeis R.J., Crits-Christoph P. (1998) “Empirically supported individual and group psychological treatments for adult mental disorders”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 37-52
  19. de Vries B., Birren J.E., Deutchman D.E. (1990) “Adult development through guided autobiography: The family context”, Family Relations, 39: 3-7
  20. Dobson K.S., Craig K.D. (eds.) (1998) Empirically supported therapies: Best practice in professional psychology, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA
  21. Esterling B.A., Antoni M.H., Fletcher M.A., Margulies S., Schneiderman N. (1994) “Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Burr virus antibody titers”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62: 130-140
  22. Esterling B.A., L’Abate L., Murray E., Pennebaker J.M. (1999) “Empirical foundations for writing in prevention and psychotherapy: Mental and physical health outcomes” Clinical Psychology Review, 19: 79-96
  23. Gould R.L. (1996a) “Development, problem solving, and generalized learning: The Therapeutic Learning Program (TLP)”, in Miller M.J., Hammond K.W., Hile M.G. (eds.), Mental health computing, Springer, New York, pp. 86-105
  24. Gould R.L. (1996b) “The use of computers in therapy”, in Trabin T. (ed.), The computerization of behavioral healthcare, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 39-62
  25. Greenberg L.S. (1994) “The investigation of change: Its measurement and explanation”, in Russell R.L. (ed.), Reassessing psychotherapy research, Guilford, New York, pp. 114-143
  26. Greenberg L.S., Paivio S.C. (1997) Working with emotions in psychotherapy, Guilford, New York
  27. Havik O.E., VandenBos G.R. (1996) “Limitations of manualized psychotherapy for everyday clinical practice”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 264-267
  28. Hayes S.C., Follette V.M., Dawes R.M., Grady K.E. (1995) Scientific standards of psychological practice: Issues and recommendations, Context Press, Reno, NV
  29. Heimberg R.G. (1998) “Manual-based treatment: An essential ingredient of clinical practice in the 21st Century”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5: 387-390
  30. Hermann C., Blanchard E.B., Flor H. (1997) “Biofeedback treatment for pediatric migraine: Prediction of treatment outcome”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65: 611-616
  31. Hogue A., Liddle H.A., Rowe C., Turner R.M., Dakof G.A., LaPann K. (1998) “Treatment adherence and differentiation in individuals versus family therapy for adolescent substance abuse”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45: 104-111
  32. Howard K.I., Krause M.S., Orlinsky D.E. (1986) “The attrition dilemma: Toward a new strategy for psychotherapy research”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54: 106-110
  33. Hurt S.W., Reznikoff M., Clarkin J.F. (1991) Psychological assessment, psychiatric diagnosis, treatment planning, Brunner/Mazel, New York
  34. Jensen P.S., Josephson A.M., Frey J.III. (1994) “Informed consent as a framework for treatment: Ethical and therapeutic considerations”, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48: 378-386
  35. Jordan K., L’Abate L. (1995) “Programmed writing and psychotherapy with symbiotically enmeshed patients”, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49: 225-236
  36. Kadzin A.E. (1997) “Validated treatments: Multiple perspectives and issues: Introduction to the series”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4: 216-217
  37. Kadzin A.E. (1998) “Manual-based treatment in clinical practice: Introduction to the series”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5: 361-362
  38. Kadzin A.E., Weiss J.R. (1998) “Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 19-36.
  39. Kendall P.C. (1998) “Directing misperceptions: Researching the issues facing manual-based treatments”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 396-399
  40. Kochalka J., L’Abate L. (1997) “Linking evaluation with structured enrichment: The Family Profile Form”, American Journal of Family Therapy, 25: 361-374
  41. Kraut R., Patterson M., Lundmark V., Kiesler S., Mukopadhyay T., Scherlis W. (1998) “Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?”, American Psychologist, 53: 1017-1031
  42. L’Abate L. (1986) Systematic family therapy, Brunner/Mazel, New York
  43. L’Abate L. (1990) Building family competence: Strategies of primary and secondary prevention, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA
  44. L’Abate L. (1991) “The use of writing in psychotherapy”, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 45: 87-98
  45. L’Abate L. (1992) Programmed writing: A self-administered approach for interventions with individuals, couples, and families, Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA
  46. L’Abate L. (1994) A theory of personality development, John Wiley, New York
  47. L’Abate L. (1997a) “Distance writing and computer assisted training”, in Sauber S.R. (ed.), Managed mental health care: Major diagnostic and treatment approaches, Brunner/Mazel, Bristol, PA, pp. 133-163
  48. L’Abate L. (1997b) Manual: Distance Writing and computer-assisted interventions in mental health, Institute for Life Empowerment, Atlanta, GA
  49. L’Abate L. (1997c) “The paradox of change: Better them than us!”, in Sauber S.R. (ed.), Managed mental health care: Major diagnostic and treatment approaches, Brunner/Mazel, Bristol, PA, pp. 40-66
  50. L’Abate L. (1997d) The self in the family: A classification of personality, criminality, and psychopathology, John Wiley, New York
  51. L’Abate L. (1998a) “Discovery of the family: From the inside to the outside”, American Journal of Family Therapy, 26: 265-280
  52. L’Abate L. (1998b) “Increasing intimacy in couples through distance writing and face-to-face approaches”, in Carlson J., Sperry L. (eds.), The intimate couple, Brunner/Mazel, Bristol, PA, pp. 327-339
  53. L’Abate L. (1998c) “Of clocks and rubber bands: On the use of props in family therapy”, in Nelson T.S., Trepper T.S. (eds.), 101 more interventions in family therapy, Haworth, New York, pp. 13-17
  54. L’Abate L. (1998d) The use of notes in psychotherapy, unpublished manuscript, Georgia State University
  55. L’Abate L. (1998e) Being together: Beyond acceptance, manuscript submitted for publication
  56. L’Abate L. (in press-a) “Programmed distance writing in therapy with acting-out adolescents”, in Schaefer C.E. (ed.), Innovative techniques in child and adolescent psychotherapy, John Wiley, New York
  57. L’Abate L. (in press-b) “Psychoeducational strategies”, in Carlson J., Sperry L. (eds.), Brief therapy strategies with individuals and couples, Zeig, Tucker & Co., Phoenix, AZ
  58. L’Abate L., Boyce J., Fraizer L., Russ D.A. (1992) “Programmed writing: Research in progress”, Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2: 45-62
  59. L’Abate L., Harrison M.G. (1992) “Treating codependency”, in L’Abate L., Farrar J.E., Serritella D.A. (eds.), Handbook of differential treatments for addictions, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, pp. 286-306
  60. L’Abate L., Johnson J., Weeks G.R. (1979) “Forced holding: A technique for treating parentified children”, Family Therapy, 6: 124-132
  61. L’Abate L., Odell M. (1995) “Expanding practices and roles of family clinicians”, in Harway M. (ed.), Treating the changing family: Handling normative and unusual events, John Wiley, New York, pp. 321-339
  62. L’Abate L., Platzman K. (1991) “The practice of programmed writing (PW) in therapy and prevention with families”, American Journal of Family Therapy, 19: 99-109
  63. L’Abate L., Torem M.S. (eds.) (in press) Distance writing and computer-assisted interventions in psychiatry and mental health, Ablex, Stamford, CT
  64. Lambert M.J. (1986) “Implications of psychotherapy outcome research for eclectic psychotherapy”, in Norcross J.C. (ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy, Brunner/Mazel, New York, pp. 436-662
  65. Lambert M.J. (1989) “The individual therapist’s contribution to psychotherapy process and outcome”, Clinical Psychology Review, 9: 469-485
  66. Lauterbach W. (1996) “The changing structure of Tanya’s conflicts: A case of online conflict assessment in psychotherapy”, Psychotherapy Research, 6: 277-290
  67. Levant R.F. (1986) Psychoeducational approaches to family therapy and counseling, Springer, New York
  68. Lombard D., Haddock C.K., Talcott G.W., Reynes R. (1998) “Cost-effectiveness analysis: A primer for psychologists”, Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7: 101-108
  69. Luborsky L., Crits-Christoph P., Mintz J., Auerbach A. (1988) Who will benefit from psychotherapy? Predicting therapeutic outcomes, Basic Books, New York
  70. Marcus S., Marquis P., Sakai C. (1997) “Controlled study of treatment of PTSD using EMDR in an HMO setting”, Psychotherapy, 34: 307-315
  71. Marks I., Shaw S., Parkin R. (1998) “Computer-aided treatments of mental health problems”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5: 151-170
  72. Marques C. (1998) “Manual-based treatment and clinical practice”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 4030-402
  73. McMahan O. (1998) Programmed writing, personality variables, and couples’ adjustment, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, Atlanta
  74. Mental health: Does therapy work? (1995) Consumer Reports, 60: 734-739
  75. Miller M.J., Hammond K.W., Hile M.G. (eds.) (1996) Mental health computing, Springer, New York
  76. Mirin S.M., Gossett J.T., Grob M.C. (eds.) (1991) Psychiatric treatment: Advances in outcome research, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC
  77. Moos R.H. (1976) The human context: Environmental determinants of behavior, Wiley-Interscience, New York Mrazek P.J., Haggerty R.J. (eds.) (1994) Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research, National Academy Press, Washington, DC
  78. Murray B. (1998) “The latest techno tool: Essay-grading computers”, Psychological Monitor, 29: 43
  79. Nathan P.E., Gorman J.M. (eds.) (1998) A guide to treatments that work, Oxford University Press, New York
  80. North M.M., North S.M., Coble J.R. (1996) Virtual reality therapy: An innovative paradigm, IPI Press, Colorado Springs, CO
  81. Ogles B.M., Lambert M.J., Masters K.S. (1996) Assessing outcome in clinical practice, Allyn & Bacon, Boston
  82. Parks M.R., Roberts L.D. (1998) “‘Making moosic’: The development of personal relationships on line and a comparison to their off-line counterparts”, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15: 517-537
  83. Parloff M.B. (1998) “Is psychotherapy more than manual labor?”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 376-381
  84. Pennebaker J.W. (1997) Opening up: The healing power of confiding in others, Guilford, New York
  85. Perry S., Frances A., Clarkin J. (1990) A DSM-III-R casebook of treatment selection, Brunner/Mazel, New York
  86. Phillips E.L. (1990) “The delivery system as a prime therapeutic determinant”, in Zeig J.K., Munion W.M. (eds.), What is psychotherapy? Contemporary perspectives, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 115-119
  87. Piaget J. (1960) The child’s conception of the world, Routledge, London
  88. Progoff I. (1980) The practice of process mediation: The intensive journal way to spiritual experience, Dialogue House Library, New York
  89. Rabasca L. (1998) “Study probes how patients are affected by telehealth”, Psychological Monitor, 29: 31
  90. Riordan R.J. (1996) “Scriptotherapy: Therapeutic writing as a counseling adjunct”, Journal of Counseling and Development, 74: 263-269
  91. Rogers C.R. (1957) “The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change”, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95-103
  92. Roth A., Fonagy P. (1996) What works for whom? A critical review of psycho-therapy research, Guilford, New York
  93. Safran J.D., Muran J.C. (1998) The therapeutic alliance in brief psychotherapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
  94. Sanders M.R. (1998) “The empirical status of psychological interventions with families of children and adolescents”, in L’Abate L. (ed.), Family psycho-pathology: The relational roots of dysfunctional behavior, Guilford, New York, pp. 427- 465
  95. Shapiro D.A., Startup M., Bird D., Harper H., Reynolds S., Suokas A. (1994) “The high-water mark of the drug metaphor: A meta-analytic critique of process-outcome research”, in Russell R.L. (ed.), Reassessing psychotherapy research, Guilford, New York, pp. 1-35
  96. Shapiro F., Forrest M. (1997) EMDR, Basic Books, New York
  97. Shook D. (1998) “Number on probation or parole tops record”, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, p. A6
  98. Simon L. (1998) “Do offender treatments work?”, Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7: 137-159
  99. Smyth J.M. (1998) “Written emotional expression: Effect size, outcome types, and moderating variables”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 174-184
  100. Smyth J.M., L’Abate L. (in press) “A meta-analytic evaluation of workbooks in medicine and mental health”, in L’Abate L., Torem M.S. (eds.), Distance writing and computer-assisted interventions in psychiatry and mental health, Ablex, Stamford, CT
  101. Snyder D.K. (1981) Manual for Marital Satisfaction Inventory, Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles
  102. Snyder D.K., Costin S.E. (1994) “Marital Satisfaction Inventory”, in Maruish M.E. (ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment, Lawrence Earlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 322-351
  103. Snyder D.K., Lacher D., Wills R.M. (1988) “Computer-based interpretation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory: Use in treatment planning”, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 14: 397-409
  104. Sperry L., Brill P.L., Howard K.I., Grissom G.R. (1996) Treatment outcomes in psychotherapy and psychiatric interventions, Brunner/Mazel, New York
  105. Sprafkin R.P., Gershaw N.J., Goldstein A.P. (1993) Social skills for mental health: A structured learning approach, Allyn & Bacon, Boston
  106. Stiles W.B., Shapiro D.A., Harper H. (1994) “Finding the way from process to outcome: Blind alleys and unmarked trails”, in Russell R.L. (ed.), Reassessing psychotherapy research, Guilford, New York, pp. 36-64
  107. Strosahl K. (1998) “The dissemination of manual-based psychotherapies in managed care: Promises, problems, and prospects”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 382-386
  108. Strupp H.H., Anderson T. (1997) “On the limitations of therapy manuals”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4: 76-82
  109. Szapocznik J., Kurtines W., Foote F.H., Perez-Vidal A., Hervis O. (1983) “Conjoint versus one person family therapy: Some evidence for the effectiveness of conducting family therapy through a person”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51: 881-889
  110. Szapocznik J., Murray E., Scopetta M., Hervis O., Rio A., Cohen R., Rivas-Vasquez A., Posada V., Kurtines W. (1989) “Structural family versus psychodynamic child therapy for problematic Hispanic boys”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57: 571-578
  111. Szell E. (1994) Comparison of therapeutic interactions between face-to-face and telemediated communication conditions, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
  112. Miami, Florida
  113. Tolan P.H., Quintana E., Gorman-Smith D. (1998) “Prevention approaches for families”, in L’Abate L. (ed.), Family psychopathology: The relational roots of dysfunctional behavior, Guilford, New York, pp. 379-400
  114. Trabin T. (1996) The computerization of behavioral healthcare: How to enhance clinical practice, management, and communications, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco
  115. Weintraub M.D. (1981) Verbal behavior: Adaptations in psychopathology, Springer, New York
  116. Weissman M.M. (1995) Mastering depression: A patient’s guide to interpersonal psychotherapy, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX
  117. Weissman M.M. (1998) Patient assessment forms: Workbook for interpersonal psychotherapy program, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX
  118. Weissman M.M., Markowitz J.C. (1995) “Interpersonal psychotherapy: Current status”, Archives of General Psychiatry, 51: 599-606
  119. Williams J.B.W., Spitzer R.L. (1984) Psychotherapy research: Where are we and where should we go?, Guilford, New York
  120. Williams R.B., Boles M., Johnson R.E. (1995) “Patient use of a computer for prevention in primary care practice”, Patient Education and Counseling, 25: 283-292
  121. Wilson G.T. (1998) “Manual-based treatment and clinical practice”, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3: 363-375
  122. Wilson S.A., Becker L.A., Tinker R.H. (1997) “Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65: 1047-1056
  123. Ziegler R.G. (1980) “Task-focused therapy with children and families”, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 34: 107-118

Luciano L'Abate, Afferrare il toro per le corna. andando oltre il colloquio nelle sedute psicologiche in "PSICOBIETTIVO" 3/2014, pp 69-102, DOI: 10.3280/PSOB2014-003005