The protection of mental integrity between property, commons and cognitive liberty

Author/s Paolo Sommaggio
Publishing Year 2022 Issue 2022/1 Language Italian
Pages 31 P. 98-128 File size 321 KB
DOI 10.3280/SD2022-001005
DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation click here

Below, you can see the article first page

If you want to buy this article in PDF format, you can do it, following the instructions to buy download credits

Article preview

FrancoAngeli is member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc (PILA), a not-for-profit association which run the CrossRef service enabling links to and from online scholarly content.

Neurotechnologies represent both an extraordinary opportunity for our intellectual capacities and a risk for the security, privacy, autonomy and integrity of our minds and cognitive acts. Therefore, it is very important to find legal protection for the mind and its contents, that is, to recognise as an individual and social value the integrity of cognitive processes linked, or not, to the subjectivity of the individual. If this issue has traditionally been addressed through recourse to categories such as individual private property, a new perspective could allow the mind (and its products) to be recognised as having a peculiar "status", like the one of the Commons. In this essay, I question the elements of these Commons: The Mental Integrity and the Cognitive Liberty.

Keywords: Cognitive Liberty - Neurorights - Mental Integrity - Commons

  1. Amendola, Adalgiso, 2017. Diritto proprietario, beni comuni, comune tra sperimentazioni istituzionali e trasformazione costituente. Rivista critica del diritto privato, 517-528.
  2. Appadurai, Arjun, 1986. The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Baumgartner, Thomas, Markus Heinrichs, Aline Vonlanthen, Urs Fischbacher & Erns Fehr, 2008. Oxytocin Shapes the Neural Circuitry of Trust and Trust Adaptation in Humans. Neuron, 58, 4: 639–650.
  4. Becker, Lawrence C., & Charlotte B. Becker, 2001. In Encyclopedia of Ethics. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/978020395294
  5. Binder, Marc D., Nobutaka Hirokawa & Uwe Windhorst (eds.), 2009. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Dordrecht: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-29678-
  6. Blackstone, William, 1882. Commentaries on the Laws of England. Ristampa anastatica. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  7. Blank, Robert H., 2016. Cognitive Enhancement: Social and Public Policy Issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-137-57248-
  8. Blitz, Marc J., 2016. A Constitutional Right to Use Thought-enhancing Technology. In Fabrice Jotterand & Veljko Dubljevic, Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
  9. Boire, Richard G., 2004. Neurocops: The Politics of Prohibition and the Future of Enforcing Social Policy from Inside the Body. Journal of Law and Health, 19, 2: 234-258.
  10. Calabresi, Guido, & A. Douglas Melamed, 1972. Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral. Harvard Law Review, 85, 6: 1089-1128. DOI: 10.2307/134005
  11. Campbell, John, 2002. The Ownership of Thoughts. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 9, 1: 35-39.
  12. Carnegy-Arbuthnott, Hannah M., 2019. My Body and Other Objects: The Internal Limits of Self-ownership. European Journal of Philosophy, 27: 723-740.
  13. Carnelutti, Francesco, 1951. Teoria generale del diritto. Roma: Edizioni del “Foro Italiano”.
  14. Carrillo-Reid, Louis, Shuting Han, Weijian Yang, Alejandro Akrouh, & Rafael Yuste, 2019. Controlling Visually Guided Behavior by Holographic Recalling of Cortical Ensembles. Cell, 178, 2: 447-457.
  15. Clausen, Jens, 2010. Ethical brain stimulation - neuroethics of deep brain stimulation in research and clinical practice. European Journal Neuroscience, 32, 7: 1152-1162.
  16. Clausen, Jens,, 2019. Man, machine and in between. Nature, 457, 1080-1081. DOI: 10.1038/4571080
  17. Coccoli, Lorenzo (ed.), 2013. Commons. Beni comuni. Il dibattito internazionale. Firenze: goWare.
  18. Craig, Jared N., 2016. Incarceration, Direct Brain Intervention, and the Right to Mental Integrity – a Reply to Thomas Douglas. Neuroethics, 9: 107–118.
  19. Del Bò, Corrado, 2002a. Proprietà di sé e giustizia distributiva: un conflitto necessario? Il Politico, LXVII, 1: 137-149.
  20. Del Bò, Corrado 2002b. La tesi della proprietà di sé: linee generali del dibattito in corso. Filosofia e Questioni Pubbliche, VII, 3: 127-134.
  21. Demsetz, Harold, 1967. Toward a Theory of Property Rights. The American Economic Review, 57, 2: 347-359.
  22. Descartes, René, [1637-1641]1912. Discorso sul metodo e Meditazioni filosofiche. Traduzione italiana di Adriano Tilgher. Bari: Laterza.
  23. Di Plinio, Giampiero, 2016. L’ideologia dei beni comuni e la costituzione economica dell’ambiente. In Antonio Ruggeri, Scritti in onore di Gaetano Silvestri. I. Torino: Giappichelli.
  24. Douglas, Thomas, & Lisa Forsberg, 2021. Three Rationales for a Legal Right to Mental Integrity. In Sjors Ligthart, Dave Van Toor, Kooijmans Tijs, Douglas Thomas & Meynen Gerben (eds.), Neurolaw. Advances in Neuroscience, Justice & Security, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-69277-3_
  25. Etheridge, Ari U., & John R. Chamberlain, 2006. Application of Sell vs United States. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 34, 2: 248-250.
  26. Farah, Martha J., M. Elizabeth Smith, Cyrena Gawuga, Dennis Lidsell & Dean Foster, 2010. Brain Imaging and Brain Privacy: A Realistic Concern? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1: 119-127.
  27. Ferrante, Riccardo, 2013. La favola dei beni comuni, o la storia presa sul serio. Ragion pratica, 41: 319-332.
  28. Ferrari, Vincenzo, 2017. La giustizia bene comune”. Area democratica per la giustizia. --
  29. Fisher, Carl Erik, Lisa Chin, & Robert Klitzman, 2010. Defining Neuromarketing: Practices and Professional Challenges. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18, 4: 230–237. DOI: 10.3109/10673229.2010.49662
  30. Fried, Barbara H., 2004. Left-libertarianism: A Review Essay. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 32, 1: 66-92.
  31. Fuselli, Stefano, 2020. Mental integrity protection in the neuro-era. Legal challenges and philosophical background. BioLaw Journal, 1: 413-429. DOI: 10.15168/2284-4503-53
  32. Glannon, Walter, 2011. What Neuroscience Can (and Cannot) Tell Us about Criminal Responsibility. In Michael Freeman, Law and Neuroscience. Current Legal Issues vol. 13. New York: Oxford University Press.
  33. Glannon, Walter,, 2014. Ethical issues with brain-computer interfaces. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8: 136.
  34. Goering, Sara, & Rafael Yuste, 2016. On the Necessity of Ethical Guidelines for Novel Neurotechnologies. Cell, 3: 882-885.
  35. Greely, Henry T., Barbara Sahakian, John Harris, Ronald C. Kessler, Michael Gazzaniga, Philip Campbell & Martha J. Farah, 2008. Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy. Nature, 456, 7233: 702-705. DOI: 10.1038/456702
  36. Greene, Joshua, & Jonathan Cohen, 2004. For the Law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing and Everything. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 359: 1775‐1785.
  37. Halewood, Peter, 2008. On Commodification and Self-Ownership. Yale Journal of Law & Humanities, 20, 2: 131-162.
  38. Hardin, Garrett, 1968. The Tragedy of Commons. Science, 162: 1243-1248.
  39. Hardin, Garrett, & John Baden (eds.), 1977. Managing the Commons. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company.
  40. Hess, Charlotte, & Elinor Ostrom, 2009. La conoscenza come bene comune. Dalla teoria alla pratica. Readuzione italiana. Milano: Mondadori.
  41. Hohfeld, Wesley N., 1913. Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning. Yale Law Journal, 23, 1: 16-59. DOI: 10.2307/78553
  42. Ienca, Marcello, 2021. On Neurorights. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15: 701258.
  43. Jennings, Joshua H., Christina K. Kim, James H. Marshel, Misha Raffiee, Li Ye, Sean Quirin, Sally Pak, Charu Ramakrishnan, & Karl Deisseroth, 2019. Interacting neural ensembles in orbitofrontal cortex for social and feeding behaviour. Nature, 565: 645–649.
  44. Jonas, Hans, [1954]1995. The Gnostic Religion. The Message of the Alien God and the Beginnings of Christianity. Traduzione italiana Lo gnosticismo. Torino: SEI.
  45. Jonas, Hans,, [1966]1999. The Phenomenon of Life. Toward a Philosophical Biology. Traduzione italiana Organismo e libertà. Verso una biologia filosofica. Torino: Einaudi.
  46. Jotterand, Fabrice, & James Giordano, 2008. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation and personal identity: ethical questions, and neuroethical approaches for medical practice. International Review of Psychiatry, 23, 5: 476–485. DOI: 10.3109/09540261.2011.61618
  47. Kandel, Eric R., James H. Schwartz & Thomas M. Jessell (eds.),1981. Principles of Neural Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  48. Klein, Stan B., 2015. The feeling of personal ownership of one’s mental states: A conceptual argument and empirical evidence for an essential, but underappreciated, mechanism of mind. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2, 4: 355-376.
  49. Kosfeld, Michael, Markus Heinrichs, Paul J. Zak, Urs Fischbacher, & Ernst Fehr, 2005. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435, 7042: 673–676.
  50. Locke, John, [1690]1948. Two Treatises of Government. In Luigi Pareyson (a cura di), Due trattati sul governo. Torino: Utet.
  51. Locke, John, [1690]1952. The Second Treatise of Government. Edited by Thomas P. Peardon. New York: The Liberal Arts Press.
  52. Lottieri, Carlo, 2020. Beni comuni, diritti individuali e ordine evolutivo. Torino: IBL.
  53. Mack, Eric, 1990. Self-Ownership and the Right of Property. The Monist, 73, 4: 519-543.
  54. Mantovani, Ferrando, 2008. Diritto penale. Parte speciale. Padova: Cedam.
  55. Marzano, Maria M., 1999. Il corpo tra diritto e diritti. Materiali per una storia della cultura giuridica, XXIX, 29, 2: 527-545. DOI: 10.1436/674
  56. Maslen, Hannah, Thomas Douglas, Roi Cohen Kadosh, Neil Levy & Julian Savulescu, 2014. The regulation of cognitive enhancement devices: extending the medical model. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1, 1: 68-93.
  57. Mattei, Ugo, 2011. Beni comuni. Un manifesto. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  58. Mattei, Ugo,, 2012. Proprietà (nuove forme di). In Enciclopedia del diritto. Annali, V, XXVII. Milano: Giuffrè.
  59. Mattei, Ugo,, 2015. Il benicomunismo e i suoi nemici. Torino: Einaudi.
  60. Mattei, Ugo,, Edoardo Reviglio & Stefano Rodotà, 2007. Invertire la rotta. Idee per una riforma della proprietà pubblica. Bologna: il Mulino.
  61. Mattei, Ugo,, Edoardo Reviglio & Stefano Rodotà, 2010. I beni pubblici. Dal governo democratico dell’economia alla riforma del codice civile. Roma: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.
  62. Micciarelli, Giuseppe, 2014. Le teorie dei beni comuni al banco di prova del diritto. La soglia di un nuovo immaginario istituzionale. Politica & Società, 1: 123-142.
  63. Moroni, Stefano, 2015. Beni di nessuno, beni di alcuni, beni di tutti. Note critiche sull’incerto paradigma dei beni comuni. Italian Journal of Regional Science, 14, 3: 137-144.
  64. Morse, Stephen J., 2007. The Non-Problem of Free Will in Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Behavioural Sciences & the Law, 25, 2: 203-220.
  65. Morse, Stephen J., 2011. Lost in Translation? An Essay on Law and Neuroscience. In Michael Freeman (ed.), Law and Neuroscience. Current legal Issues. New York: Oxford University Press.
  66. Morse, Stephen J., 2013. Compatibilist Criminal Law. In Thomas A. Nadelhoffer (ed.), The Future of Punishment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  67. National Research Council, 2009. Opportunities in Neuroscience for Future Army Applications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. DOI: 10.17226/1250
  68. Nederman, Cary J., 1996. Property and Protest: Political Theory and Subjective Rights in Fourteenth-Century England. The Review of Politics, 58, 2: 323-344.
  69. Nisco, Attilio, 2012. La tutela penale della integrità psichica. Torino: Giappichelli.
  70. Nivarra, Luca, 2010. I beni culturali sullo sfondo del ripensamento dei beni pubblici. In Guido Alpa, Giuseppe Conte, Valentina Di Gregorio, Andrea Fusaro & Ubaldo Perfetti, I beni culturali nel diritto. Problemi e prospettive. Napoli: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane.
  71. Nozick, Robert, 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.
  72. Ostrom, Elinor, [1990]2006. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Traduzione italiana Governare i beni collettivi. Venezia: Marsilio Editori.
  73. Otsuka, Michael, 1998. Self-Ownership and Equality: A Lockean Reconciliation. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 27, 1: 65-92.
  74. Pomarici, Ulderico, 2015. Crisi e conflitti nella democrazia contemporanea. "Variazioni” sui beni comuni. Rivista di filosofia del diritto, 4, 1: 171-196. DOI: 10.4477/7971
  75. Prospero, Michele, 2014. Beni comuni. Tra ideologia e diritto. In Nicola Genga, Michele Prospero & Giovanni Teodoro (a cura di), I beni comuni tra costituzionalismo e ideologia. Torino: Giappichelli.
  76. Pupolizio, Ivan, 2014. Pubblico, privato, comune. Sociologia del diritto, 2: 7-33. DOI: 10.3280/SD2014-002001
  77. Roskies, Adina, 2002. Neuroethics for the New Millennium. Neuron, 35, 1: 21‐23.
  78. Rothbard, Murray N., 1977. Power and Market: Government and the Economy. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel.
  79. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, [1762]1924. Le contrat social. Traduzione italiana Il contratto sociale. Firenze: Vallecchi.
  80. Ryan, Alan, 1992. Robert Nozick: Property, Justice and the minimal state. Ethics, 103, 1: 154-157. DOI: 10.1086/29347
  81. Shih, Jerry J., Dean J. Krusienski, Johnathan R., & Jonathan R. Wolpaw, 2012. Brain-Computer Interfaces in Medicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 87, 3: 268-279.
  82. Simeral, John D., Thomas Hosman, Jad Saab, Sharlene N. Flesher, Marco Vilela, Brian Franco, Jessica N. Kelemen, David M. Brandman, John G. Ciancibello, Paymon G. Rezaii, Emad N. Eskandar, David M. Rosler, Krishna V. Shenoy, Jaimie M. Henderson, Arto V. Nurmikko, & Leigh R. Hochberg, 2021. Home Use of a Percutaneous Wireless Intracortical Brain-Computer Interface by Individuals with Tetraplegia. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 68, 7: 2313-2325. DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2021.306911
  83. Sirgiovanni, Benedetta, 2017. Dal diritto sui beni comuni al diritto ai beni comuni. Rassegna di diritto civile, XXXVIII, 1: 229-246.
  84. Sommaggio, Paolo, 2014. Neurocivilizzazione. Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, XVI, 2: 130‐168.
  85. Sommaggio, Paolo, 2015. Scenari di neurocivilizzazione. Biolaw Journal, 3: 137-149.
  86. Sommaggio, Paolo, 2016. Neuro-civilization: A New Form of Social Enhancement. ATINER’S Conference Paper Series, SOS2016-2106: 3-18.
  87. Sommaggio, Paolo, 2017. Cognitive liberty. A first step towards a human neuro-rights declaration. BioLaw Journal, 3: 27-45. DOI: 10.15168/2284-4503-25
  88. Sommaggio, Paolo, & Marco Mazzocca, 2020. Cognitive Liberty and Human Rights. In Antonio D’Aloia & Maria Chiara Errigo (a cura di), Neuroscience and Law. Springer Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38840-9_
  89. Steiner, Hillel, 1994. An Essay on Rights. Cambridge: Blackwell. DOI: 10.2307/295645
  90. Tamanaha, Brian Z., 2007. How an Instrumental View of Law Corrodes the Rule of Law. DePaul Law Review, 56, 2: 1‐52.
  91. Thrasher, John, 2019. Self-Ownership as Personal Sovereignty. Social Philosophy and Policy, 36, 2: 116-133. DOI: 10.1017/S026505251900039
  92. Todescan, Franco, 1997. Il problema del volontarismo in Hobbes. In Francesco Cavalla (a cura di), Cultura moderna e interpretazione classica, 1. Padova: Cedam.
  93. Tully, James, 1993. An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO978051160788
  94. Usai, Alessandro, 1996. Profili penali dei condizionamenti psichici. Milano: Giuffrè.
  95. Vallentyne, Peter, Hillel Steiner, & Michael Otsuka, 2005. Why Left-Libertarianism Is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 33, 2: 201-215.
  96. Van Parijs, Philippe, 1997 Real Freedom for All: What (If Anything) Can Justify Capitalism. New York: Clarendon Press. DOI: 10.1093/0198293577.001.000
  97. Viola, Francesco, 2016. Beni comuni e bene comune. Diritto e Società, 3: 381-398. DOI: 10.1400/25105
  98. Vitale, Ermanno, 2017. Beni comuni, un lodevole vicolo cieco? Questione Giustizia, 2, -- (visitato il 27 ottobre 2021).
  99. Weisberg, Deena S., Frank C. Keil, Joshua Goodstein, Elizabeth Rawson, 2008. The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 3: 470-477.
  100. Yuste, Rafael, Jared Genser, & Stephanie Herrmann, 2021. It’s Time for Neurorights. New Human Rights for the Age of Neurotechnology. Horizons, (CIRSD, Center for International Relation and Sustainable Development), 18: 154-164, -- (visitato il 30 ottobre 2021).

Paolo Sommaggio, La tutela della integrità mentale tra proprietà, beni comuni e libertà cognitiva in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL DIRITTO " 1/2022, pp 98-128, DOI: 10.3280/SD2022-001005